Overview

Segmentation Coin types Additional symbols City ethnic

Segmentation

Staters are segmented into three groups based on the orientation of the obverse and the way the goat is depicted on the reverse:

GROUP 1
Time period: c. 450 BC
Characteristic: The obverse and reverse are oriented to the left. The reverse depicts the forepart of a goat looking ahead.
GROUP 2
Time period: c. 450–405 BC
Characteristic: The obverse is oriented to the left, the orientation of the reverse is not fixed. The reverse always depicts a whole goat looking the opposite direction.
GROUP 3
Time period: c. 405–375 BC (?)
Characteristic: The obverse is oriented to the right, the orientation of the reverse is not fixed. The reverse always depicts a whole goat looking the opposite direction.

The dating of these groups is uncertain. For Group 1, the traditional dating to about the middle of the 5th century BC is given here. The division between Group 2 and Group 3 is based on Kraay 1962, p. 15. The year 375 BC as terminus ante quem for the stater mintage is based on published hoards, but this is a highly uncertain estimate and it is possible that some types were minted much later. Note that Casabonne 2004, p. 117, gives a different segmentation except for Group 1, which he places, however, in the period 440–430 BC.

Third staters and silver fractions (obols and hemiobols) are listed in separate sections. A special section includes bronze coins with a gorgoneion on the obverse and a kneeling goat on the reverse. These bronze coins are usually dated to the 2nd century BC (e.g., SNG Levante and SNG Levante Supp.), but their style and light weight are consistent with pre-Hellenistic coins. Also, the sun symbol (Type 7.3c) connects them with obols from the pre-Hellenistic period (Types 5.12b and 5.14).

 

Coin types

Staters
Obverse Reverse Distinctive features Type
horseman left forepart of
goat
left rev.: above goat, ethnic 1.1
rev.: above goat, Corinthian helmet; behind goat, ethnic 1.2
obv.: rider wearing chlamys
rev.: dotted border
1.3
goat left rev.: in exergue, ethnic; dotted border 2.1
obv.: in exergue, ethnic
rev.: astragalos, double exergual line with hatched markings
2.2
obv.: in exergue, ethnic
rev.: ivy branch, triple exergual line
2.3
rev.: on left, ethnic; above goat, ivy branch ending in a flower 2.4a
obv.: behind horse’s forelegs, Π
rev.: on left, ethnic; above goat, ivy branch ending in a flower
2.4b
obv.: in exergue, dolphin
rev.: boxed form of letter heta
2.5
anepigraphic 2.6a
rev.: above goat, ethnic 2.6b–g
obv.: behind horse’s forelegs, A
rev.: above goat, ethnic
2.7
obv.: in front of horse’s hind legs, A
rev.: above goat, ethnic
2.8
obv.: in front of horse’s hind legs, A (or Λ?) engraved over another character
rev.: above goat, ethnic
2.9
obv.: behind horse’s forelegs, letter resembling Π
rev.: above goat, ethnic
2.10
obv.: in front of horse’s hind legs, Π
rev.: above goat, ethnic
2.11
right rev.: above goat, ethnic; double dotted and solid exergual line 2.12
right goat left rev.: above goat, ethnic 3.1
rev.: ethnic divided into two parts 3.2
rev.: ethnic divided into three parts 3.3
rev.: above goat, KE; no incuse 3.4
rev.: above goat, ethnic; dotted border; no incuse 3.5
obv.: rider sitting astride; above horse, Sun
rev.: above goat, ethnic; dotted border; no incuse
3.6
right rev.: above goat, ethnic (on some variants divided into two parts) 3.7
rev.: above goat, ethnic (on some variants divided into two parts); control mark(s) 3.8
obv.: whip loop
rev.: above goat, ethnic (on some variants divided into two parts)
3.9
rev.: above goat, ethnic; exergue, dolphin 3.10
rev.: above goat, ethnic; below goat, olive sprig 3.11
obv.: below horse, T
rev.: above goat, ethnic; no incuse
3.12
rev.: square incuse 3.13
rev.: above goat, ethnic (on some variants divided into two parts); dotted border; no incuse 3.14
obv.: below horse, control mark
rev.: above goat, ethnic; control mark(s); no incuse
3.15
rev.: above goat, ethnic; faint dotted border 3.16
obv.: rider sitting astride; above horse, Sun
rev.: above goat, ethnic; control mark(s); dotted border; no incuse
3.17
Third Staters
Obverse Reverse Distinctive features Type
forepart of
Pegasus
left forepart of
goat
left rev.: goat looking ahead 4.1
horseman left goat left rev.: above goat, astragalos 4.2
obv.: in exergue, ethnic 4.3
obv.: before horse, round shield; in exergue, dolphin
rev.: boxed form of letter heta
4.4
rev.: above goat, ivy branch 4.5
rev.: above goat, ethnic 4.6
obv.: letter Π
rev.: above goat, ethnic
4.7
right goat left rev.: above goat, ethnic (on some variants divided into two parts) 4.8
right rev.: above goat, ethnic 4.9
Obols
Obverse Reverse Distinctive features Type
forepart of
Pegasus
left forepart of
goat
left obv.: Pegasus has wide wings
rev.: goat looking ahead
5.1
obv.: Pegasus has wide wings
rev.: ethnic or symbol
5.2a–c
right obv.: Pegasus has wide wings
rev.: ivy leaf with stem
5.2d
rev.: around goat; ethnic 5.3a
right forepart of
goat
left rev.: above or around goat; ethnic 5.3b–c
right rev.: around goat; ethnic 5.3d
left goat right rev.: above goat, ethnic 5.4a
right goat right rev.: ethnic 5.4b–e
forepart of
horse
left forepart of
goat
right obv.: round shield
rev.: boxed form of letter heta
5.5
head of Athena left forepart of
Pegasus
left rev.: square incuse 5.6
goat right rev.: above goat, ethnic 5.9
gorgoneion en face forepart of
Pegasus
left rev.: square incuse 5.7a
right rev.: square incuse 5.7b
forepart of
horse
right rev.: square incuse 5.8
astragalos en face rev.: ethnic 5.13
rev.: ethnic and Sun 5.14
horse left goat left rev.: above goat, ethnic 5.11a
right forepart of
goat
right rev.: ethnic, kerykeion 5.10
goat left rev.: anepigraphic or ethnic above goat 5.11b–d
obv.: above horse, wreath
rev.: ethnic and control mark
5.12a
right rev.: anepigraphic or ethnic above goat 5.11e–i
obv.: above horse, Sun
rev.: ethnic and facing lion’s head (?)
5.12b
Hemiobols
Obverse Reverse Distinctive features Type
forepart of
Pegasus
left forepart of
goat
left rev.: ethnic 6.1a–c
goat left rev.: ethnic 6.2a
right rev.: ethnic 6.2b
right forepart of
goat
right rev.: ethnic 6.1d
goat right rev.: ethnic 6.2c–f
head of Athena right forepart of
Pegasus
left rev.: square incuse 6.3
gorgoneion en face forepart of
Pegasus
left rev.: square incuse 6.4
forepart of
horse
right rev.: square incuse 6.5
horse right goat right rev.: ethnic 6.6
Bronze coins
Obverse Reverse Distinctive features Type
gorgoneion en face forepart of
goat
right anepigraphic 7.1
goat left anepigraphic 7.2
goat right rev.: ethnic 7.3a–b
rev.: ethnic; Sun 7.3c

 

Additional symbols

Symbol Denomination Position Orientation Type
astragalos stater rev.: upper field 2.2
rev.: exergue 2.8e
third stater rev.: upper field 4.2
Corinthian helmet stater rev.: upper field left 1.2
dolphin stater obv.: exergue left 2.5
rev.: exergue right 3.10
third stater obv.: exergue left 4.4
ivy branch
(various forms)
stater rev.: upper field left 2.3b–c, 2.4, 2.6b, 2.9c, 2.11a
right 2.3a, 3.9d
third stater rev.: upper field left 4.5b–c, 4.6b
right 4.5a
obol rev.: right field left 5.2c
ivy leaf stater rev.: upper field left 2.6f, 3.1d–e
rev.: exergue right 2.12c
obol rev.: upper field left 5.2d
kerykeion
(caduceus)
stater rev.: exergue left 3.15d
obol rev.: left field 5.10
lion’s head stater rev.: right field facing 3.17a–b, e
obol rev.: right field facing 5.12b
olive sprig stater rev.: lower field 3.11
round shield third stater obv.: left field 4.4
obol obv.: left field 5.5
Sun stater obv.: upper field 3.6, 3.17
obol obv.: upper field 5.12b
obol rev.: left field 5.14
bronze coins rev.: right field 7.3c
wreath obol obv.: upper field 5.12a

 

City ethnic

Ethnic Denomination Position Type
KEΛENΔEPITIKON stater rev. 3.13a–c
KEΛEN stater obv. 1.3c
rev. 1.2, 2.6e–g, 2.7b, 2.8d–e, 2.9, 2.10c, 2.12, 3.1f, 3.2, 3.3, 3.6b, 3.7c–f, 3.8b–k, 3.9b–f, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13d, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16a, 3.17c–e
third stater rev. 4.6c, 4.7a, 4.8, 4.9
KEΛE stater obv. 2.3c
rev. 2.6d, 2.8c, 2.11b, 3.1d–e, 3.8a, 3.9a, 3.16a, 3.17a–b
third stater rev. 4.6b
KEΛ stater obv. 2.3a–b, 2.2
rev. 1.1, 2.1, 2.4, 2.7a, 2.8a–b, 2.10a–b, 2.6b–c, 3.1a–c, 3.5, 3.7a
third stater obv. 4.3
rev. 4.6a, 4.7b–c
obol rev. 5.2a–b, 5.3a, d, 5.4a, d–e, 5.9, 5.10b–c, 5.11d, h–i, 5.13a, c
hemiobol rev. 6.1c, 6.2b, d–f
KE stater rev. 3.4
obol rev. 5.3b–c, 5.4b–c, 5.10a, 5.11a, c, f–g, 5.12, 5.14
hemiobol rev. 6.1b, 6.2a, c, 6.6
bronze coins rev. 7.3
K hemiobol rev. 6.1a
KEΔ (sic) obol rev. 5.13b
KENΛ (sic) stater rev. 3.7b
anepigraphic stater 1.3a–b, 2.5, 2.6a
third stater 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.5
obol 5.1, 5.2c–d, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.11b, d
hemiobol 6.1d, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5
bronze coins 7.1, 7.2

 

16 July 2021 – 24 February 2024