Weight analyzes indicate that the production of individual coin denominations can be divided into phases characterized by a gradual decrease in the weight standard. Staters can be divided into five such phases, third staters into three phases, obols into four phases, and hemioboles into two phases. For details, see sections Kelenderis, staters, Kelenderis, third staters, Kelenderis, obols and Kelenderis, hemiobols.

The different number of these phases for individual denominations is most likely due to the fact that some denominations were not minted in some periods. The highest number of phases (five) can be distinguished for staters, i.e. for the highest nominal. These five phases are therefore taken as a relative time scale on which the production phases of the other denominations can be mapped. The following table shows the possible mapping of these phases between the individual denominations, which thus represents the relative chronology of the Kelenderis coinage. The second column of the table shows the groups or types listed in the Coin Catalogue that represent the appropriate phase for the given denomination.

Bronze coins assigned to Phase 5 are added for completeness. This tentative assignment is based on the speculative assumption that their mintage began after the production of hemiobols had ended.

It must be emphasized that this relative chronology is for now only a working hypothesis, which may be corrected in the future. The representativeness of the datasets needs to be increased and the weight analyses need to be combined with analyses of die-links, overstrikes and relevant published coin hoards.

Staters | ||

Phase 1: |
Group 1 | |

Phase 2: |
Group 2 | |

Phase 3: |
Group 3 except Types 3A.3, 3B.1, 3C.1, 3H.2, 3I.1, 3I.2 and 3J.1 | |

Phase 4: |
Types 3H.2 and 3I.1 | |

Phase 5: |
Types 3A.3, 3B.1, 3C.1, 3I.2 and 3J.1 | |

Third staters | ||

Phase 1: |
Group 1 | |

Phase 2: |
Group 2 | |

Phase 3: |
Group 3 | |

Phase 4: |
— | |

Phase 5: |
— | |

Obols | ||

Phase 1: |
Group 1 | |

Phase 2 and/or 3: |
Groups 2 and 3 except Types 2C.3, 3L.4, 3N.1, 3N.2 and 3N.3 | |

Phase 4: |
Types 3N.1, 3N.2 and 3N.3 (horse on the obverse) | |

Phase 5: |
Types 2C.3 and 3L.4 (astragalos on the reverse) | |

Hemiobols | ||

Phase 1: |
— | |

Phase 2 and/or 3: |
Groups 2 and 3 except Type 3N.4 | |

Phase 4: |
Type 3N.4 (horse on the obverse) | |

Phase 5: |
— | |

Bronze coins | ||

Phases 1–4: |
— | |

Phase 5: |
Group 3 | |

**Table 1:** Relative chronology

The average and median weights of individual denominations in individual phases are shown in Table 2 (in each field, the first value represent the average weight and the second value after the slash represent the median weight). For oboles and hemioboles, these values are given under Phases 2 and 3 together, because it is uncertain to which of these two phases to assign them. Third staters are represented by a single specimen in each of Phases 1 and 3, and therefore the values in these fields of the table should be taken as indicative only.

Denomination | Phase | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | |

stater |
10.73 / 10.79 | 10.73 / 10.74 | 10.63 / 10.68 | 10.31 / 10.29 | 9.88 / 9.95 |

third stater |
3.59 / 3.59 | 3.51 / 3.51 | 3.49 / 3.49 | ||

obol |
0.77 / 0.79 | 0.79 / 0.80 | 0.71 / 0.72 | 0.57 / 0.56 | |

hemiobol |
0.37 / 0.37 | 0.29 / 0.29 | |||

bronze |
1.62 / 1.57 |

**Table 2:** Average and median weights for individual phases of Kelenderis coinage

Table 3 presents the ratios of average weights between denominations in individual phases. The second column shows the theoretical weight ratios assuming that the mint had no profit from minting lower denominations. That is, these ratios are based on the fact that in the Persian weight standard used in Cilicia in the pre-Hellenistic period, 1 stater = 3 third staters, 1 third stater = 4 obols, and 1 obol = 2 hemiobols, i.e. 1 stater = 3 third staters = 3×4 obols = 3×4×2 hemiobols. As can be expected, the actual ratios based on the analysed data are lower than these theoretical values. The only exception is the ratio of third staters to staters in Phase 1, but as mentioned above, the data corpus so far contains only a single specimen of a third stater falling into Phase 1. In Phases 4 and 5, we can observe an increase in the deviations from the theoretical values, which indicates that in the final phases of the Kelenderis coinage there was not only a lightening of the weight standard, but also the relative value of obols and hemiobols decreased (and thus the mint’s profits from their minting increased).

Denomination ratio | Theoretical ratio | Phase | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ||

third stater / stater |
33.3% |
33.5% | 32.7% | 32.8% | ||

obol / stater |
8.3% |
7.2% | 7.3% | 7.4% | 6.9% | 5.8% |

obol / third stater |
25.0% |
21.4% | 22.4% | 22.5% | ||

hemiobol / stater |
4.2% |
3.4% | 3.4% | 2.8% | ||

hemiobol / third stater |
12.5% |
10.4% | 10.5% | |||

hemiobol / obol |
50.0% |
46.5% | 46.5% | 40.6% |

**Table 3:** Ratios of average weights of silver denominations

Table 4 shows the same relationships in the form of reciprocal ratios. For example, 12 obols could be minted from the amount of silver corresponding to one stater, but in the early phase of the Kelenderis coinage it was 14 obols and in the last phase even 17.3 obols.

Denomination ratio | Theoretical ratio | Phase | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ||

stater / third stater |
3 |
3.0 | 3.1 | 3.0 | ||

stater / obol |
12 |
14.0 | 13.6 | 13.5 | 14.4 | 17.3 |

third stater / obol |
4 |
4.7 | 4.5 | 4.4 | ||

stater / hemiobol |
24 |
29.3 | 29.1 | 35.5 | ||

third stater / hemiobol |
8 |
9.6 | 9.5 | |||

obol / hemiobol |
2 |
2.2 | 2.2 | 2.5 |

**Table 4:** Reciprocal ratios of average weights of silver denominations

1 August 2023 – 27 August 2023